Peer-Reviewed Journals:

  • Evans, Eliza, Charles Gomez and Dan McFarland. 2016. Using Text to Measure Paradigmaticness. Sociological Science.
    • Abstract: In this paper, we describe new methods that use the text of publications to measure the paradigmaticness of disciplines. Drawing on the text of published articles in the Web of Science, we build samples of disciplinary discourse. Using these language samples, we measure the two core concepts of paradigmaticness—consensus and rapid discovery (Collins 1994)—and show the relative positioning of eight example disciplines on each of these measures. Our measures show consistent differences between the “hard” sciences and “soft” social sciences. Deviations in the expected ranking of disciplines within the sciences and social sciences suggest new interpretations of the hierarchy of disciplines, directions for future research, and further insight into the developments in disciplinary structure and discourse that shape paradigmaticness.
    • Keywords: sociology of science; computational linguistics; disciplinary paradigms; hierarchy of sciences

 

  • Gomez, Charles and Paolo Parigi. 2015. Regionalization of Intergovernmental Organization Networks: A Non-Linear Process. Social Networks.
    • Abstract: We use a computationally intensive approach to explore how the world polity is becoming more fractured along regional lines. We discover that regionalization is a non-linear process and show that the world polity oscillates between fracturing and re-contracting. We do so by applying the technique of Hierarchical Link Clustering (HLC) to yearly intergovernmental organization (IGO) networks from 1971 to 2005. The mechanism for explaining this seemingly contradictory result lies in the behavior of IGOs, which depends largely on the organizations’ geographic focus: regionally focused IGOs create more communities, thereby fracturing the world polity, while globally focused IGOs create relationships across communities, thereby bringing communities together. Every year, different percentages of global and regional IGOs enter the network, thereby producing oscillations in the overall structure.
    • Keywords: IGOs; Networks; Clustering; Computational social science

 

  • Kizilcec, Rene F., Jeremy Bailenson, and Charles Gomez. 2015. The Instructor’s Face in Video Instruction: Evidence from Two Large-Scale Field Studies. Journal of Educational Psychology.
    • Abstract: Multimedia learning research has established several principles for the effective design of audiovisual instruction. The image principle suggests that showing the instructor’s face in multimedia instruction does not promote learning, because the potential benefits from inducing social responses are outweighed by the cost of additional cognitive processing. In an 8-week observational field study (N = 2,951), online learners chose to watch video lectures either with or without the instructor’s face. Although learners who saw the face reported having a better lecture experience than those who chose not to see the face, 35% watched videos without the face for self-reported reasons including avoiding distraction. Building on these insights, the authors developed a video presentation style that strategically shows the face to reduce distraction while preserving occasional social cues. A 10-week field experiment (N = 12,468) compared the constant with the strategic presentation of the face and provided evidence consistent with the image principle. Cognitive load and perceived social presence were higher in the strategic than in the constant condition, but learning outcomes and attrition did not differ. Learners who expressed a verbal learning preference experienced substantially lower attrition and cognitive load with the constant than the strategic presentation. The findings highlight the value of social cues for motivation and caution against onesize- fits-all approaches to instructional design that fail to account for individual differences in multimedia instruction.

 

  • Bustos, Sebastian, Charles Gomez, Ricardo Hausmann, and Cesar Hidalgo. 2011. The Dynamics of Nestedness Predicts the Evolution of Industrial Ecosystems. PLOS ONE.
    • Abstract: In economic systems, the mix of products that countries make or export has been shown to be a strong leading indicator of economic growth. Hence, methods to characterize and predict the structure of the network connecting countries to the products that they export are relevant for understanding the dynamics of economic development. Here we study the presence and absence of industries in international and domestic economies and show that these networks are significantly nested. This means that the less filled rows and columns of these networks’ adjacency matrices tend to be subsets of the fuller rows and columns. Moreover, we show that their nestedness remains constant over time and that it is sustained by both, a bias for industries that deviate from the networks’ nestedness to disappear, and a bias for the industries that are missing according to nestedness to appear. This makes the appearance and disappearance of individual industries in each location predictable. We interpret the high level of nestedness observed in these networks in the context of the neutral model of development introduced by Hidalgo and Hausmann (2009). We show that the model can reproduce the high level of nestedness observed in these networks only when we assume a high level of heterogeneity in the distribution of capabilities available in countries and required by products. In the context of the neutral model, this implies that the high level of nestedness observed in these economic networks emerges as a combination of both, the complementarity of inputs and heterogeneity in the number of capabilities available in countries and required by products. The stability of nestedness in industrial ecosystems, and the predictability implied by it, demonstrates the importance of the study of network properties in the evolution of economic networks.